Aside

Jacquelyn, Kristen, Miranda

BASICS

Socrates who was believed to be born in Classical Athens had lived his childhood during the Golden Age. Where his father Sophroniscus made a living as a stonemason and his mom, Phaenarete had been a midwife.

          YOUNG SOCRATES

Socrates_Louvre

Bust of Socrates

THE YOUNG PHILOSOPHER

Many people seemed to give Socrates a bad reputation since he would walk around Athens with his hair a mess, with no shoes, and with dirty clothes. People started to wonder why he went from a war hero to someone who seemed to not care anymore. Socrates had started living his life constantly questioning what he was doing, and how to live what he had called a “good” life. As a philosopher he gained many followers of his beliefs. One of his well-known followers or “student” was another philosopher named Plato. Who would later carry out Socrates’s philosophical ways. Socrates was known for constantly pushing the limits of ones human knowledge.

HIS FOCUS IN LIFE

  • Euthyphro – Piety/Impiety
    • The persecution of Socrates questions on whether his actions are deemed piety/impiety. In the discussion with Euthyphro, Socrates can be seen in the story as a patient witness to Euthyphro claims on the right path towards being piety. As he claims when he heads to his on personal trial on the same day of Socrates as the plaintiff to a murder that he believes was committed by his own father. Socrates on the other hand can be seen heading to trail for being accused of corrupting the youth and lack of faith in the gods. Though compared to Socrates own trial, he can be shocked of this knowledge of knowing that Euthyphro has brought about charges against his own father. Due to the knowledge of the ways of the value of connections between families in Ancient Greece, in which family is the most important factor in Greek culture. Though the main focus of “Euthyphro” is whether the actions of his father lead him towards the path of impiety. Seeing as one of the workers of Euthyphro’s father was in fact at fault for killing one of his servants, he sought justice by sending a messenger off to the city to see the steps needed to be taken to complete this task. Although in the process of doing this he had decided to tie up the killer and toss him a ditch till the appointed time, who unfortunately didn’t live to hear the messenger’s verdict due Euthyphro’s father’s lack of care throughout the time. This Euthyphro deems enough fact to charge his own father for his actions that lead towards the man’s death. This leads Socrates to begin questioning Euthyphro’s on the facts that make a man to be pious, which causes an obscuring view of a determined answer of a proper term for piety/impiety. Though from a person’s own perspective that piety can only be achieved if they hold a honest/pure amount of virtue and their own beliefs.

 

  • Death and Immortality

 

  • Symposium
    •  The speech given by Socrates concerning the “Ladder of Love”, best describes the process of how humans build up a close relations towards one another. All human beings that are born into existence wish to be remembered in some way in hopes of staying immortal to others in history. To succeed in this great heroic figures would be portrayed in sacrificing themselves for those they love in retribution and passion. The “Ladder of Love”, basically shows us the stages of human interest for one another through desire for another body to the possible similarities between one another and how they truly connect in the final stages, such as in observing that persons characteristics and knowledge within them. Although humans can be seen searching for love in

      hopes of living life forever due to the magnificent feelings it grants them. Although in learning love in this process is that love doesn’t have to be about a person physically touching another human being, but also spiritual, such as loving another from a distance and knowing their partner feels the same for them.

      The explanatory strengths of this speech is that it describes the facts of how an actual person in the motion of the beginning, middle, and ending of falling in love with one another. Although the theory of Socrates speech could questionable, due to the fact that the source he originally found this speech could be lacking some truth, especially with the facts that Socrates himself claims that not even he knew that much about love. Though the philosophical work that’s portrayed within the speech in process of desire for a lover to having a deeper understanding for their personal being.

 

  • On the Nature of the Soul

 

  • Republic
    • In books I and II, Socrates and his fellow scholars can be found within Celphalus’ house, speaking of how to achieve a good lifesocrates and platothrough the process of justice. Thus causing Socrates to give his own speculation of the term of justice, which he believes to be the process of “telling the truth and paying ones debts” as the only exempt way to achieving a good life. Although this causes each scholar within the house to go into a deeper discussion of the advantages and disadvantages with his own term of justice, thus giving their own conclusions over the form of justice.

EXECUTION

  • Was tried for two charges:
    • Corrupting the youth
    • Impiety
      • Failed to acknowledge the Gods
      • Created new Gods, or lack thereof
  • He also questioned almost everything, which Greek authority did not agree with
  • Was killed by being forced to drink Hemlock, a poisonous plant.

 

death-of-socrates-H

Works Cited

  • Plato, and C. D. C. Reeve. “Euthyphro.” A Plato Reader: Eight Essential 

Dialogues. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Pub., 2012. N. pag. Print.

  • Plato, and C. D. C. Reeve. “Republic.” A Plato Reader: Eight Essential

Dialogues. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Pub., 2012. N. pag. Print.

  • Plato, and C. D. C. Reeve. “Symposium.” A Plato Reader: Eight Essential

Dialogues. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Pub., 2012. N. pag. Print.

 

Spartan Agoge

WHAT IS IT: AGOGE IS THE RIGOROUS EDUCATION AND TRAINING REGIME THAT WAS MANDATORY FOR ALL MALE CITIZENS EXCEPT THE FIRSTBORNS OF RULING HOUSES IN ANCIENT GREECE.

WHEN DID IT START:AS SOON AS A CHILD WAS BORN IN SPARTA, THE MOTHER WOULD WASH IT WITH WINE, IN ORDER TO MAKE SURE THAT IT WAS STRONG. IF THE CHILD WAS WEAK, IT WOULD DIE SOON. LATER IT WAS BROUGHT BY HIS FATHER TO THE ELDERS, WHO INSPECTED CAREFULLY THE NEWBORN INFANT. IF THEY FOUND THAT THE CHILD WAS DEFORMED OR WEAKLY, THEY THREW IT INTO KAIDA, THE SO CALLED APOTHETAE, A CHIASM AT A CLIFF, OF THE MOUNT TAYGETOS.WHEN THE YOUNG SPARTAN BOY REACHED SEVEN HE WAS DEEMED TOO OLD TO BE CODDLED BY HIS PARENTS AND WAS TAKEN FROM THEM TO LIVE A MILITARY LIFE FOR THE REST OF HIS EXISTENCE.

IT BEGINS: HE WAS PLACED IN A COMMUNAL BARRACKS WITH OTHERS HIS AGE, SUPERVISED BY AN OLDER BOY REFERRED TO AS A EIRENA WHO HAD RESPECTIVELY BEEN THE STRONGEST IN HIS CLASS (AND WAS HIMSELF UNDERGOING SOMETHING LIKE OFFICER TRAINING). FOR THE NEXT FIVE YEARS THESE SPARTAN BOYS WERE CONDITIONED PHYSICALLY AND MENTALLY.
THEY  WERE EDUCATED ENOUGH TO COUNT SOLDIERS IN A FORMATION, READ WAR SAGAS AND SING AND RECITE WAR POETRY. INSTRUCTED IN SCHOLASTICS, WARFARE, STEALTH, HUNTING AND ATHLETICS
SUFFERING INCREASES: AT AGE 12, INITIATES WERE DEPRIVED OF ALL CLOTHING EXCEPT FOR A RED CLOAK(HIMATATION) AND FORCED TO SLEEP OUTSIDE AND MAKE THEIR OWN BEDS FROM REEDS FROM THE BANKS OF EUROTAS. THESE INITIATES WERE TAUGHT TO ENDURE PAIN,HUNGER,THIRST,COLD,FATIGUE,AND A LACK OF SLEEP AND WOULD EVEN BATHE IN COLD WATERS. THERE WAS NO ARGUING WITH SUPERIORS OR DENYING/IGNORING THE LAWS OF LYCURGUS

THE SPARTAN BOYS WERE ENCOURAGED TO STEAL FOOD. IF THEY WERE CAUGHT THEY WERE PUNISHED BUT NOT FOR STEALING BUT FOR BEING CAUGHT.A WELL-KNOWN STORY THAT PROVES THE SPARTAN TRAINING AND LOYALTY IS THIS: ONCE, A  SPARTAN BOY CAPTURED A LIVE FOX AND INTENDED TO EAT IT. ALTHOUGH BOYS WERE ENCOURAGED TO SCROUNGE FOR FOOD, THEY WERE PUNISHED IF CAUGHT. THE BOY NOTICED SOME SPARTAN SOLDIERS COMING, AND HID THE FOX BENEATH HIS SHIRT. WHEN THE SOLDIERS CONFRONTED HIM, HE ALLOWED THE FOX TO CHEW INTO HIS STOMACH RATHER THAN CONFESS, AND SHOWED NO SIGN OF PAIN IN HIS BODY OR FACE. THIS WAS THE SPARTAN WAY

TRAINING: SPARTAN INITIATES WERE TRAINING IN RUNNING,JUMPING,THROWING SPEARS, MARCH, PATROLS, AMBUSHES AND MOCK BATTLES.
THERE WAS SPECIAL ATTENTION TO CLIMB HILLS AND DESCEND SAFELY

spartan-wrestling
THOSE WHO DEMONSTRATED MOST LEADERSHIP WERE SELECTED TO PARTICIPATE IN THE KYPTERIA
EVERY AUTUMN, ACCORDING TO PLUTARCH ,THE SPARTAN WOULD PRO FORMADECLARE WAR ON THE HELOT POPULATION SO THAT ANY SPARTAN CITIZEN COULD KILL A HELOT WITHOUT FEAR OF BLOOD GUILT.

THE KRYPTES WERE SENT OUT INTO THE COUNTRYSIDE WITH ONLY A KNIFE TO SURVIVE ON THEIR SKILLS AND CUNNING WITH THE INSTRUCTIONS TO KILL ANY HELOT THEY ENCOUNTERED AT NIGHT AND TO TAKE ANY FOOD THEY NEEDED. ONLY SPARTANS WHO HAD SERVED IN THE KRYPTEIA AS YOUNG MEN COULD EXPECT TO ACHIEVE THE HIGHEST RANKS IN SPARTAN SOCIETY AND ARMY. IT WAS FELT THAT ONLY THOSE SPARTANS WHO SHOWED THE ABILITY AND WILLINGNESS TO KILL FOR THE STATE AT A YOUNG AGE WERE WORTHY TO JOIN THE LEADERSHIP IN LATER YEARS.
AT AGE 20 WAS THE END OF THE AGOGE AND MILITARY SERVICE BEGAN UNTIL THE AGE OF 60 . THE SPARTAN SOLDIER WAS HOUSED IN A PUBLIC BARRACS OF 15 OR SO TO EAT AND SLEEP. THIS WAS DONE UNTIL THE AGE OF 30 WHEN HE COULD LIVE WITH HIS WIFE.
ANY SPARTAN THAT WAS WASHED OUT OF THE AGOGE WOULD SHAME HIS FAMILY AND THE BLOODLINE WOULD MOST IKELY NOT BE PERMITTED TO CONTINUE FROM THAT SON.

WORKS CITED
HTTP://WWW.SIKYON.COM/SPARTA/AGOGI_EG.HTML
HTTP://SUITE101.COM/A/AGOGE-SPARTAN-MILITARY-TRAINING-A15311
HTTP://WWW.HISTORY.COM/NEWS/HISTORY-LISTS/8-REASONS-IT-WASNT-EASY-BEING-SPARTAN
HTTP://PENELOPE.UCHICAGO.EDU/THAYER/E/ROMAN/TEXTS/PLUTARCH/MORALIA/SAYINGS_OF_SPARTANS*/UNKNOWN.HTML
HTTP://WWW.HISTORYWIZ.COM/DIDYOUKNOW/SPARTANFAMILY.HTM
HTTP://HISTCLO.COM/CHRON/ANCIENT/GRE/CITY/SPAR/SPAR-GF.HTML
GYMNASIUM OF VIRTUE (STUDIES IN THE HISTORY OF GREECE AND ROME)