Naukratis

Carlos Mejia Jr.

What was Naucratis?

According to Herodotus, Naucratis was a settlement as well as a trading post established by the Greeks that had a joint venture to twelve different places: “Ionians from Samos, Miletos, Chios, Teos, Phokaia and Klazomenai; Dorians from Rhodes, Knidos, Halikarnassos and Phaselis; Aiolionas from Mytilene on Lesbos and the people of Aigina, the island close to Athens.” (Villing) Although Naucratis was across the Mediterranean Sea from its twelve trading areas, it became a very successful trade route between Greece and Egypt. Naucratis, along with its sister port, Thonis/Herakleion, protected the Canopic branch from marauders and began a long series of trading ports across the Nile River.

Who was in Naucratis?

Amasis, who was a friend of Greece, was a Pharaoh in Egypt that oversaw Naucratis and its trade. He let anyone who came to Egypt live in Naucratis to start their new lives as a kind gesture. Those who did not want to live there were allowed to build sanctuaries for their personal gods. The cities of Rhodes, Cnidus, Halicarnassus, and many more all founded the largest and most famous sanctuary called the Hellenion. The city was very diverse, besides having Greeks and Egyptians live there, Cypriots, Persians, and Phoenicians were the most notable.

Where was Naucratis located?

The settlement was located on the Canopic branch of the Nile River, approximately seventy-two kilometers southeast of the open sea and Alexandria. Its sister port, a harbor town called Thonis/Herakleion, was located just downstream at the mouth of the branch. With recent discovery, historians have found extensive canals and harbor infrastructure underwater between the two ports that show that Thonis/Herakleion was the first port for ships en route to Naucratis.

Who has visited Naucratis?

Being one of the main ports, Naucratis was expected to see an abundance of traders, as well as their goods. Greek aristocrat Charaxos, who was the brother of archaic Greek Poet, Sappho, was well known for trading wine from Lesbos in order to fund for his ‘sightseeing’ voyage. It is said that Athenian statesman, Solon, has traveled to Egypt for both business and to see the country. The most notable individual would be Plato, who was constantly trading olive oil in exchange for this voyage to Egypt.

What kind of trade happened?

The main target of goods that were worth the most was the goods that were foreign to Egypt. Lebanon trading their wine and wood was a huge focus while Greece would trade olive oil in amphorae. The Phoenicians took a huge part in trading, being the ones that travelled the most. Historians have translated an Aramaic tax register from an unknown port that had a list of Phoenician ships sailing to Naucratis with an abundance of imported goods to trade. They brought in Sidonian wine, cedar wood, a variety of metals, Samian Earth, and building materials. Within archaeology, it is different to determine exactly what else was traded, due to the fact that several of natural resources were perishable. Egypt traded grain, papyrus, alum, and natron, which were some of the most important goods to come across of.

Why was Naucratis important in Ancient Greece history?

Not only was it the main trade route between Greece and Egypt, but it also extended all across the Mediterranean. The most notable were between East Greece to the Phoenician coast, Cyprus, mainland Greece, the Nile Delta, North Africa, Sardinia, Etruria and Spain. Within all the trading, several different cultures were able to adapt with all the newly founded resources. What one country lacked in resources, there was a possibly that it would be for trade in the port of Naucratis.

How does Naucratis look now?

Now, Naucratis is located near the modern villages of Kom Ge’if, Nebira and El-Neqrash. About sixteen kilometers west of the Rosetta branch of the Nile and fifteen kilometers east of the Libyan plain. It does not have an direct lines to the Nile anymore , even though in past times it was on the eastern bank of the Canopic Nile branch. Very few structures are still standing today, such as pillars and several staircases but not enough stands to determine that it was once a great port of Egypt.

Work Cited

Villing, Alexandra. “Naucratis: A City and Trading Port in Egypt.” British Musuem. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Dec. 2016.

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Naucratis (Mejia)

Carlos Mejia Jr.

What was Naucratis?

According to Herodotus, Naucratis was a settlement as well as a trading post established by the Greeks that had a joint venture to twelve different places: “Ionians from Samos, Miletos, Chios, Teos, Phokaia and Klazomenai; Dorians from Rhodes, Knidos, Halikarnassos and Phaselis; Aiolionas from Mytilene on Lesbos and the people of Aigina, the island close to Athens.” (Villing) Although Naucratis was across the Mediterranean Sea from its twelve trading areas, it became a very successful trade route between Greece and Egypt. Naucratis, along with its sister port, Thonis/Herakleion, protected the Canopic branch from marauders and began a long series of trading ports across the Nile River.

Who was in Naucratis?

Amasis, who was a friend of Greece, was a Pharaoh in Egypt that oversaw Naucratis and its trade. He let anyone who came to Egypt live in Naucratis to start their new lives as a kind gesture. Those who did not want to live there were allowed to build sanctuaries for their personal gods. The cities of Rhodes, Cnidus, Halicarnassus, and many more all founded the largest and most famous sanctuary called the Hellenion. The city was very diverse, besides having Greeks and Egyptians live there, Cypriots, Persians, and Phoenicians were the most notable.

 

Where was Naucratis located?

The settlement was located on the Canopic branch of the Nile River, approximately seventy-two kilometers southeast of the open sea and Alexandria. Its sister port, a harbor town called Thonis/Herakleion, was located just downstream at the mouth of the branch. With recent discovery, historians have found extensive canals and harbor infrastructure underwater between the two ports that show that Thonis/Herakleion was the first port for ships en route to Naucratis.

Who has visited Naucratis?

Being one of the main ports, Naucratis was expected to see an abundance of traders, as well as their goods. Greek aristocrat Charaxos, who was the brother of archaic Greek Poet, Sappho, was well known for trading wine from Lesbos in order to fund for his ‘sightseeing’ voyage. It is said that Athenian statesman, Solon, has traveled to Egypt for both business and to see the country. The most notable individual would be Plato, who was constantly trading olive oil in exchange for this voyage to Egypt.

 

What kind of trade happened?

The main target of goods that were worth the most was the goods that were foreign to Egypt. Lebanon trading their wine and wood was a huge focus while Greece would trade olive oil in amphorae. The Phoenicians took a huge part in trading, being the ones that travelled the most. Historians have translated an Aramaic tax register from an unknown port that had a list of Phoenician ships sailing to Naucratis with an abundance of imported goods to trade. They brought in Sidonian wine, cedar wood, a variety of metals, Samian Earth, and building materials. Within archaeology, it is different to determine exactly what else was traded, due to the fact that several of natural resources were perishable. Egypt traded grain, papyrus, alum, and natron, which were some of the most important goods to come across of.

Why was Naucratis important in Ancient Greece history?

Not only was it the main trade route between Greece and Egypt, but it also extended all across the Mediterranean. The most notable were between East Greece to the Phoenician coast, Cyprus, mainland Greece, the Nile Delta, North Africa, Sardinia, Etruria and Spain. Within all the trading, several different cultures were able to adapt with all the newly founded resources. What one country lacked in resources, there was a possibly that it would be for trade in the port of Naucratis.

 

How does Naucratis look now?

Now, Naucratis is located near the modern villages of Kom Ge’if, Nebira and El-Neqrash. About sixteen kilometers west of the Rosetta branch of the Nile and fifteen kilometers east of the Libyan plain. It does not have an direct lines to the Nile anymore , even though in past times it was on the eastern bank of the Canopic Nile branch. Very few structures are still standing today, such as pillars and several staircases but not enough stands to determine that it was once a great port of Egypt.

Work Cited

Villing, Alexandra. “Naucratis: A City and Trading Port in Egypt.” British Musuem. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Dec. 2016.

 

 

The Successes of Alexander the Great

by Jared Garcia, Josue Souza, Aminta Gamez, Ryan Lane

http://alexandermosaik.de/en/reconstruction_of_the_mosaic.html

Alexander (far left) in the battle of Issus
Kruck, Werner. Battle of Issus. 1st century BC. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples. alexandermosaik.de Web. 5 Dec. 2015

What made Alexander “Great”?
The Macedonian King’s ambitions lent extension of Macedonian rule over Greece, Central Asia and land in India. In order to maintain Macedonian rule over a vast empire and unite people, he used several tactics to complete his conquests. Alexander was a brilliant military leader, an amazing tactician and he did so much in the years he ruled that he was named “the Great”.

What were Alexander’s tactics to unite and rule his empire?
First, defeat his enemies. Second, spread Greek ideas and mesh them with Macedonian ideas. Third, take advantage of religion as a steppingstone. Lastly, adopt foreign ways to finalize unification of people and consolidate his ruling.

How did he manage to rule an empire?
At the age of 20 Alexander takes the throne after his father, Philip II, had died. So he connects himself to Heracles, saying that he is descendent of him. Which is very important because Heracles was looked at as “the hero” of mythology. Heracles was the strongest of them all and to connect your self to someone that many people have told stories about and looked up to is very important, it allows justifies why he is the ruler of Greece and why he is allowed to rule, instead of someone else. He also links himself to the great god Zeus. He’s claimed to be Zeus’ son, there for a making himself a demigod, and essentially a hero people look up to. Throughout mythology we see that being a son of a god has its advantages since you are looked up to and are someone who shouldn’t have there authority challenge and is someone who you know has the divine right to rule.

Bust of Alexander the Great
Dunn, Andrew. AlexanderTheGreatBust. 2004. British Museum, London. andrewdunnphoto.com. Web. 5 Dec. 2015

In order to unite so many different people, what was his plan to do this?
Throughout his conquest, Alexander, the brilliant man he is, utilizes the norms and practices of other cultures, and he is able to adapt and even uses some things in other cultures to further his own power. Although he is only half Greek, Alexander understands the importance of mythology to the Greeks, and how if you are connected to a person of myth you can establish legitimacy to ruling the Greeks.
We can see an example of Alexander utilizing other cultures to gain power, when he is in Persia. He connects himself with the royal family. Not only does he connect himself to the royal family but creates a link between Greek/Macedonian and Persian gods. Alexander was trying utilized Persians gods and connects it with Greek gods so that he can have an advantage over the people in Persia to make them believe he was doing what the gods wanted him to do.
The way that Alexander was able to spread the Greek culture and ideas was in the cities he built. Like Greek cities, the cities he built in the places he conquered had marketplaces, temples, and theaters. One of the most famous of the new cities was called Alexandria. It was located in Egypt near the sea. Alexandria was designed with wide major streets crossed by narrower streets. It had many Greek features. It had a marketplace, a university, a gymnasium, and a theater. The city also boasted law courts and a library. There was even a temple dedicated to Poseidon, the Greek god of the sea within it. This shows that Alexander was not only able to conquer Egypt, but he was also able to convince them to adopt major parts of the Greek culture within a newly built city.
Alexander’s plan to use the religion of the place he is conquering. When he began to attempt to conquer Egypt and Persia he recognized their gods and treated them as equals to the Greek gods. He would visit oracle sites, make sacrifices, and would have temples built in their honor. On one occasion, he visited the oracle site of the Egyptian god Ammon. When he arrived, a priest welcomed him as “God’s son.” When the priest said this it helped Alexander gain the loyalty of the Egyptians. After being called “Gods son”, Alexander began encouraged the idea that he himself was a god. After his visit to the Egyptian oracle, he began to start wearing a crown of two rams’ horns. This crown was the sacred headdress of the Egyptian god Ammon. Seeing Alexander wearing the crown encouraged the Egyptians to accept him as a god. So by accepting and then becoming part of the Egyptian religion, Alexander was able to be hugely accepted by Egyptians and then was also able to keep peace between Greek and Egyptian culture while he was conquering Egypt.

Were his conquests successful?
An example of Alexander the Great successfully utilizing other cultures to benefit him is when he is invading India. His conquests in India lead him to a battle against 2 kings of Indian tribes. During the battle the Indian army had brought out something that Alexander had never seen in battle before, which were the war elephants. Alexander the Great was not accustomed to fighting war elephants since he never had, so he was brilliantly able to adapt to these new instrument of war and was able to defeat the elephants. It is only because Alexander is so gifted in being able to adapt to different cultures and adapt to the situation at hand that he was able to defeat the Indian army.
Another example is when he goes into Egypt during the campaigns of Persia. Egypt saw him as a liberator and welcomed him with open arms. Alexander the Great sets up the city of Alexandria to link it to Greece. Also wile in Egypt he rebuilds temples for the Greeks, and he openly embraces the Egyptian culture, which can be seen as a political move to try and have them as an ally or even try to rule Egypt himself.
Alexander’s tactic to show respect for the cultures of the people he conquered. For example, in Persia he adopted the Persian system of government. He allowed Persian governors to run the day-to-day business of their lands. Alexander also borrowed Persian customs. He began wearing decorative Persian-style clothes. He received official visitors as a Persian king would, in a luxurious tent. The tent was supported by 30-foot columns. The columns were covered in gold and silver and decorated with precious stones. Alexander even encouraged marriage between Macedonians and Persians. He himself even married the eldest daughter of Darius.

Alexander covering the body of Darius with his cape
Steakley, James. Den Leichnam des Darius. 2009. Privately Owned. Wikimedia.com. Web. 5 Dec. 2015.

 

In Conclusion
Alexander the Great was a man that conquered many places. The places that are most surprising are Persia and Egypt, he was able to conquer Egypt by mixing into their religion and make him very trustworthy to them. He was able to conquer Persia by embracing their style of clothing and making himself look very much like a Persian. He not only made himself look like a Persian but he demanded that he be greeted like a Persian king when meeting people. By doing these things and fully embracing other cultures and their beliefs, Alexander the Great was well liked everywhere, even while he was conquering their land.

Works Cited

Walbank, Frank W. “Alexander the Great | King of Macedonia.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, 07 Apr. 2015. Web. 05 Dec. 2015. <http://www.britannica.com/biography/Alexander-the-Great&gt;.
Pomeroy, Sarah B. A Brief History of Ancient Greece: Politics, Society, and Culture. New York: Oxford UP, 2004. Print.

Themistocles

Created by John Mohacey & Kollin Strey

Themistocles was an Athenian general who was an excellent tactician as well as a renowned statesman.  Born in 524 B.C.E. Themistocles had good claim to being the man who saved Greece during the Second Persian War.

themistocles

Bust of Themistocles 3

Despite this, Themistocles would be surrounded by controversy for most of his life and would die in exile in 459 B.C.E..

 

Themistocles’ early life

Themistocles began life as part of the family of a minor Athenian noble, named Neocles.  His mother was non-Athenian, either a Thracian woman named Abrotonum or a Carian named Euterpe, which is Greek for ‘well-pleasing.’  This, combined with the possibility of his mother being a prostitute, denied Themistocles’ status as an Athenian citizen.2

According to Plutarch, Themistocles spent a good deal of his youth leading members of other social classes in their exercises in an effort to overcome class restrictions.  He also spent a large amount of time practicing oration, prompting the comment from one of his teachers that he was destined for greatness.1

Themistocles’ early political career

In 508 B.C.E., Themistocles gained Athenian citizenship thanks to Cleisthenes, who granted citizenship to all free, property holding men in Athens.2  He very quickly aspired to greater political office, attaining the position of Archon in 493 B.C.E. at around the age of 30.

Themistocles was one of the advocates for the construction of the harbor near Piraeus and further enhancing the power of the Athenian navy. He also advocated for increasing the rights of those Athenians who served as rowers for Athens’ ships, increasing his popularity amongst the common citizens.2

44d603c5c93d54fcb1adf6497fe504b2

Modern day Piraeus 4

 

Along the way, Themistocles gained a number of enemies during his rise to power.  Thanking all of his achievements to the power of democracy, Themistocles advocated for bringing more rights and power to common citizens, making him enemies with the established aristocratic families.  Furthermore, by styling himself as an ally of the common man, Themistocles gained a great deal of popularity and power in the democracy, which caused others seeking political power to be wary of him.1

Themistocles during the Persian Wars

During the First Persian War, Themistocles spoke in favor of Miltiades, a former tyrant of Athens who is often credited with the strategy that defeated the Persians at the Battle of Marathon in the First Persian War.1

themistocles-athenian-politician-and-general-524-459-bc

A model of Themistocles at war 5

 

After the defeat of the first Persian invasion, Themistocles advocated for the strengthening of the Athenian navy to combat future Persian invasions.  Though he initially faced heavy opposition to his plan, he was able to convince his fellow Athenians in the Ecclesia by implying that the ships would be used to fight against another Greek city-state.1

During the Second Persian War, Themistocles’ ships proved instrumental in turning the tide of the war and the saving of the population of Athens.  When the Persians marched upon Athens, Themistocles used an old prophecy about the ‘wooden walls’ of Athens saving it, reinterpreting the ‘wooden walls’ as being it’s navy, thus convincing the leadership to evacuate the people.  Later, at the island of Salamis, Themistocles tricked the Persian and Greek forces into a full fledged conflict.  Despite the larger size of the Persian navy, the Greeks were able to defeat the Persians thanks to the cramped area in which they were fighting, rendering the numerical advantage of the Persians useless.1  Without this naval victory, Greece wouldn’t have been able to win the Persian War shortly afterwards at the land battle at Platea.

Themistocles’ exile and death

After the Second Persian War, Themistocles’ actions finally caught up with him.  He was exiled from Athens after building a temple to Artemis in his hometown and naming it Aristoboule, or good counsel.  To make matters worse, his constant boasting about his achievements made him a number of enemies both inside and outside of Athens, most notably the Spartans, who accused him of colluding with a known traitor.  As a result, Themistocles fled Greece.1

After his exile from Greece, Themistocles would end up serving as an aide to the Persian king.  He was held in high regard by the Persian king, Artaxerxes, and served as a consul on matters involving Greece.  He was given governorship of the province of Magnesia, where he served until his death in 459 B.C.E..  There are several depictions of his death, as, while some claim he died of natural causes, others, such as Plutarch, made the claim he poisoned himself to avoid failing a task assigned by Artaxerxes, which Plutarch claimed was an assault upon a Greek city-state.1

Controversies surrounding Themistocles

Themistocles was a man of many ambitions, which in turn led him to be accused by his peers of power mongering.  His critics often cited Themistocles’  as being boastful of his many accomplishments, such as his status and rank.  Many of the Athenian aristocrats didn’t like Themistocles because he gained a large amount of power so quickly and was not from an affluent family. 

While he was the main catalyst in defeating the Persian Empire in the Second Persian War, Themistocles did so by a number of underhanded methods.  During the evacuation of Athens, Themistocles looted the city and used some of the money he found to pay the wages of the rowers of the boats evacuating Athenian citizens.  Later, at the island of Salamis, Themistocles accepted a large bribe to protect the island from the Persian navy.  In order to ensure the battle happened, Themistocles bribed many of the other Greek forces to stay and fight, and when some refused, he forced them to fight by telling the Persians the location of the Greek navy.  As insurance in case the Greeks lost, Themistocles mentioned in his letter that he was willing to betray Greece and join the Persians.

Sources:

1: http://classics.mit.edu/Plutarch/themisto.html

2: http://www.britannica.com/biography/Themistocles

3: http://images.greece.com/info/Themistocles.jpg

4: http://media-cache-ec0.pinimg.com/736x/44/d6/03/44d603c5c93d54fcb1adf6497fe504b2.jpg

5: http://www.art-girona.com/3057-thickbox_default/themistocles-athenian-politician-and-general-524-459-bc.jpg

 

The Life of Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great served as king of Macedonia from 336 to 323 BC. During this time, Alexander united Greece, reestablished the Corinthian League, and conquered the Persian Empire.

Alexander’s Childhood:

He was the child of King Philip II and Queen Olympia. Alexander was raised with his sister in Pella’s Royal Court. Alexander rarely saw his father, as he was busy with military campaigns and extra-marital affairs. Alexander grew up resenting his father because of his absence and philandering.

Alexander received a unique education, as he went through a many tutors. His Tutors were supposed to teach Alexander math, archery, and how to ride a horse. His tutors struggled to control Alexander because he was rebellious.

In 343 BC, King Philip II hired Aristotle, a philosopher, to teach Alexander, and even some of his friends, philosophy, poetry, drama, science, and politics. Aristotle introduced Alexander to the Iliad, which inspired Alexander to pursue becoming a heroic warrior.

Alexander finally finished his education at Meiza in 340 BC. In just a year after that, Alexander became a soldier and went on his first military expedition, which was against the Thracian tribes. In two years, Alexander took charge of the Companion Cavalry and supported his father in defeating the Athenian and Theban armies. However, as soon as King Philip succeeded in his campaign to unite all Greek states, except Sparta, the father and son relationship dissolved. After which, Alexander’s father ousted his mother and married Cleopatra. Alexander and his sister would live on the run with his mother’s family until he was able to solve the differences between he and his father.

Alexander: The King of Macedonia

In 336 BC, Alexander’s sister married the Molossian king. King Philip II was murdered by Pausanias at the festivities that followed the wedding.

After his fathers death, Alexander, a man only 19 years old, was determined to take the throne at any cost. He easily gained the support of the Macedonian army, and the soldiers that fought with him at Chaeronea. Olympia, Alexander’s mother, was very loyal and sought to aid her son’s claim to the throne. She murdered the daughter of King Philip II and Cleopatra, and even drove Cleopatra to commit suicide.

Even though Alexander was the feudal king of Macedonia, he did not obtain control of the Corinthian League immediately. After Philip II’s death, the southern states of Greece were divided and expressed divided interests. They actually hoped to take control of the league. In response, Alexander sent his army south and forced the southern states to recognize him as the rightful ruler.

Alexander’s Campaigns and Conquests

As Alexander was nearing the end of his northern campaign, he was delivered the news that Thebes, a Greek city-state, had forced out the Macedonian troops that were garrisoned there. Fearing a revolt among the other city-states, Alexander leapt into action, marching his massive army consisting of 3,000 cavalry and 30,000 infantry southward all the way to the tip of the Greek peninsula.

Alexander and his army arrived in Thebes so fast, that the city-state was unable to pull its allies together to aid in there defense. Alexander hoped that Thebes would serve as an example to all city-states that this was the result of revolting. This intimidation tactic would prove to be very effective, the remaining states pledged their loyalty to Alexander, or remained neutral.

Next up on Alexander’s agenda was his campaign to conquer Egypt. After besieging Gaza on his way to Egypt, Alexander easily achieved his conquest; Egypt fell without resistance. In 331, he created the city of Alexandria, designed as a hub for Greek culture and commerce. Later that year, Alexander defeated the Persians at the Battle of Gaugamela. With the collapse of the Persian army, Alexander became “King of Babylon, King of Asia, King of the Four Quarters of the World.”

Alexander’s next conquest was eastern Iran, where he created Macedonian colonies and in 327 seized the fortress in Ariamazes. After capturing Prince Oxyartes, Alexander married the prince’s daughter, Rhoxana.

In 328, Alexander defeated King Porus’ armies in northern India. Finding himself impressed by Porus, Alexander reinstated him as king and won his loyalty and forgiveness. Alexander forged eastward to the Ganges but headed back when his armies refused to advance any farther. On their way back along the Indus, Alexander was wounded by Malli warriors.

In 325, after Alexander had recovered, he and his army headed north along the rugged Persian Gulf, where many fell prey to illness, injury and death. In February 324, Alexander at last reached the city of Susa. Desperate to retain his leadership and recruit more soldiers, he tried to connect Persian nobles to Macedonians in order to create a ruling class. To this end, at Susa he commanded that a large number of Macedonians marry Persian princesses. After Alexander managed to recruit tens of thousands of Persian soldiers into his army, he dismissed many of his existing Macedonian soldiers. This enraged the soldiers, who spoke critically of Alexander’s new troops and condemned him for adopting Persian customs and manners. Alexander appeased the Macedonian soldiers by killing 13 Persian military leaders. The Thanksgiving Feast at Susa, which had been geared towards solidifying the bond between Persians and Macedonians, shaped up to be quite the opposite.

Alexander’s Death

While considering the conquests of Carthage and Rome, Alexander the Great died of malaria in Babylon (now Iraq), on June 13, 323 B.C. He was just 32 years old. Rhoxana gave birth to his son a few months later.

After Alexander died, his empire collapsed and the nations within it battled for power. Over time, the cultures of Greece and the Orient synthesized and thrived as a side effect of Alexander’s empire, becoming part of his legacy and spreading the spirit of Panhellenism.

 

This was created by Collin Janecka

 

The Roadrunners’ Guide to the Ancient World is an interactive map of and guide to the people and places of antiquity. All content (except for the entry on Siena) is created by students at the University of Texas at San Antonio, and targeted at students and community members.  While it is possible to search entries through this page, the Guide is designed to be experienced through the interactive map, in the link below.

Enter the Roadrunners’ Guide to the Ancient World Main Page

Instructions for Using this Resource

While the Roadrunner’s Guide to the Ancient World is meant to be easy to use, a few tips may be helpful to you when using the site

1) The Roadrunner’s Guide is built off of Google Maps. Therefore, it may default to your last Google Maps settings. please zoom the map in or out until it appears as you wish it would, and turn off the “labels” feature to prevent potential confusion.

2) The Roadrunners’ Guide to the Ancient World currently contains information about the ancient world, or to about 400 CE. Therefore, the names connected to the locations on the map may be somewhat different to what you are used to.

3) The sites discussed by the Roadrunner’s Guide have been color coded and keyworded for your convenience. By June 1st, each tag will have three terms identifying important elements for easy researching. The cities are already color coded by region.

blue dotBlue Dots refer to sites on the Italian Peninsula

green dotGreen Dots refer to sites that were initially connected to Greek City-States

standard map iconPink Dots refer to sites in Western Europe

purple dotPurple Dots refer to sites in Eastern Europe and Africa

yellow marker dot       Yellow Dots refer to sites in Africa

 

Update: This year, students have added new portions of the Roadrunner’s Guide to the Ancient World. We now have multiple pages about important individuals from the Greek world, and will soon be adding even more cities.